Bhutan is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary form of government. Bhutan used to be an absolute monarchy till the year 1907. Since then, the reigning bloodline of the Wangchuk Dynasty has steered the country towards economic self-reliance, regionally balanced development and environmental preservation and good governance. In 2005, Bhutan became a constitutional monarchy after drafting its first constitution. In the year 2008, King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuk, the fifth in the royal line completed the transfer of governmental authority in the hands of the people thereby introducing democracy in the Kingdom. A new constitution was promulgated on July 18, 2008 which created a framework for a multi-party system of democratic governance.
The current monarch, King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuk, the country’s head of state and bearing the title of ‘Druk Gyalpo’ or ‘Dragon King’, ascended the throne on 9th December 2006. The king’s closest advisor is the Je Khenpo who serves as the highest religious official and the prime minister is recognized as the head of Government. The Bhutanese Constitution adopted in 2008 is based upon Buddhist philosophy and various other aspects. The constitution of Bhutan aims to promote and protect the future well-being of the people of Bhutan. It details the structure of the political system so that it provides peace and stability while also strengthening Bhutan’s security.